Thursday, 27 April 2017

KALA AZAR OR DUMDUM FEVER

Kala azar, dumdum fever, general physician, fever, causes of kala azar fever, symptoms of kala azar fever, prevention from kala azar fever, treatment of kala azar fever


The KALA – AZAR  , also known as black fever or Dumdum fever, is a serious disease of man .  The causative agent of KALA – AZAR  is a pathogenic flagellate, called Leishmania donovani, which is transmitted by the bite of small blood sucking sandflies called Phlebotomus argentipes. The incubation period i.e. the period between the infection and appearance of symptoms may vary from 3-6 months to even 2 years.

Symptoms

Early symptoms of KALA – AZAR  includes swelling, high fever, enlargement of spleen and liver. It is followed by general weakness, emaciation, anaemia due to reduction in number of blood cells, and a peculiar darkening of skin. The advance stage of KALA – AZAR  may lead to dry , rough, dark or pigmented skin. Hair becomes brittle and falls out. If KALA – AZAR  is not properly treated, the patient may die in 2 years.

Diagnosis

KALA - AZAR  can be diagnosed by microscopical examination of blood film or biopsy material taken from spleen or bone marrow of patient, for the presence of Leishmania donovani by a pathologist.

Treatment

Two groups of drugs are used for the treatment of KALA – AZAR . Pentavalent antimony compounds extensively used are sodium – antimony tartrate and gluconate, ureastibamine, aminostiburea, neostibosan, etc.  Pentamidine isethionate is also used.

PREVENTION

The prevention from KALA – AZAR  can be done by:

  • Eradication of the insect vector, i.e. sandfly which can be done by spray of insecticides and fumigation.
  • The animals who act as reservoir hosts, should be killed.
  • Mosquito nets or screens should be used for avoiding bite of sand fly hence causing KALA – AZAR .

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